A new review paper finds that the loss of Africa’s forest elephants has broad impacts on their ecosystems, including hitting several tall tree species, which play a key role in sequestering carbon dioxide.Forest elephants disperse large seeds, keep the forest canopy open, and spread rare nutrients across the forest, benefiting numerous species across the African tropics.While the IUCN currently defines African elephants as a single species, scientists believe it long past time to split them into two distinct species, savanna and forest, to bolster protection for both from the ivory trade. Children in every corner of the globe can identify an elephant in a wildlife lineup. They are as recognizable as any basic shape and as endearing as any household pet. Yet the same cannot be said for the hundreds of tropical flora and fauna that are liable to disappear should forest elephant populations continue to crash.“[Elephants] have a disproportionately large impact on their ecosystem and the organisms living in it,” says John R. Poulsen, assistant professor of tropical ecology at Duke University’s Nicholas School of the Environment. “If people are aware of the potential result of losing elephants […] perhaps they can transfer that understanding to less well known species.”Poulsen and his colleagues recently published a study in Conservation Biology examining how the loss of forest elephants would impact the rest of their natural habitat. After diligently reviewing dozens of papers on Afrotropical flora and fauna, they predict that the loss of forest elephants will reshape the ecological processes at work in their environment. Species composition will change, in addition to the size and abundance of large tree species — and, by extension, the ability of these ecosystems to store carbon dioxide.“[The] killing of elephants for their ivory is not only depriving the world of one of its most charismatic species, but might also be making the Earth less inhabitable for humans,” Poulsen says.A Tale of Two SpeciesAlthough many people are familiar with elephant conservation, few know that the African elephant is not one, but two distinct species: forest (Loxodonta cyclotis) and savanna (Loxodonta Africana). The two are different in their anatomy, reproduction, even their social structures.When most people think of Africa’s elephants they are actually picturing savanna elephants: those that live out in the open, in places like the Serengeti, and are therefore easier to study. Forest elephants are comparatively smaller and weave their way through vibrant Afrotropical forests, such as in the Congo, forging elephant-wide paths as they do so. Scientists looking at genetic markers estimate the two species split between 2 million and 6.5 million years ago; humans and chimpanzees, by comparison, diverged between 5 million and 7 million years ago.Despite such differences, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) does not currently recognize forest and savanna elephants as distinct species. Both fall under the title of African elephant.“The two-species question is pretty much accepted by the taxonomists but has yet to be officialized by IUCN,” says Fiona Maisels, surveys and monitoring adviser at the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in Gabon.Scientists generally define species as a group of organisms that can successfully mate and produce fertile offspring. The primary holdup in the case of the African elephant is that forest and savanna elephants can interbreed and produce fertile offspring, and occasionally have. However, this is also the case with wolves and coyotes, which are universally considered distinct species. And many bacteria and plants reproduce without mating at all, which provides further confusion.But, according to Poulsen, treating the two African elephant species as one has had dire implications for their respective conservation. When forest and savanna elephants are bundled together as “African elephants,” it inflates the true population of each species.“With a larger population, the conservation status of the ‘African elephant’ can be listed as ‘Vulnerable,’” Poulsen says, “which allows some [southern] African countries the possibility of trading ivory.”If the IUCN recognized forest and savanna elephants as distinct, both species would be considered “endangered,” likely necessitating stricter rules for trading ivory.According to Poulsen, the current unified conservation assessment is a barrier to the protection of forest elephants in particular. In Central Africa, 62 percent of forest elephants were lost between 2002 and 2011, primarily due to poaching. However, as they are considered the same species as the savanna elephant, the IUCN recorded a smaller overall loss in the “African elephant” population. A study in 2013 by Maisels found that current forest elephant populations are only at 10 percent of their potential size.We are losing these elephants without knowing much of what their extinction might mean for Afrotropical forests, for Central Africa, and even for global climate.“The problem is that elephant populations are doing poorly in most places and allowing the sale of ivory has traditionally grown the demand, rather than saturating it, leading to killing across the entire range of both species,” Poulsen says.Big Feet, Big FootprintForest elephants are ecosystem engineers, meaning their various behaviors heavily alter their habitat.Their size matters. Although smaller than their savanna counterparts, forest elephants are still just that: elephants. Simply by walking around, they can shape their environment. By moving in herds, their impact is multiplied. By stomping saplings, peeling bark, breaking limbs, clipping branches and trampling vegetation, forest elephants generate trail systems that can stretch tens of kilometers.All of that elephant activity shapes the forest canopy. Poulsen and his colleagues say that, although destructive, the elephants clear the understory of the forest, allowing large trees to spread their roots and grow to their greatest heights. Without this service, greater competition for light and soil could slow tree growth and reduce trees’ potential size.Physical damage from elephant trampling and digging in the forest of Ivindo National Park, Gabon. Image by Cooper Rosin.Elephants are also the largest fruit-eating animals on the planet, and they aren’t picky about their food. They consume more than 500 plant species in Central Africa. Plants that produce fruit often rely on animals to disperse their seeds far and wide. Since elephants are so large, they can eat and carry seeds that are too big, hard or fibrous for other, smaller animals. Forest elephants, and forest elephants alone, disperse the seeds of at least 43 plant species in Central Africa.By doing so, they also boost the odds that the seeds will take root. The digestive tract of elephants improves the germination time and growth rates of seedlings that pass through it.Additionally, the wide swaths of forest floor that elephants open up provide ample space for new seedlings to settle.Navel fruit trees in the genus Omphalocarpum. The fruit is cauliflorous (meaning it grows on the trunk), very large and hard, with a thick husk, so only elephants can consume and disperse the seeds. Plant species like this could decline with the loss of elephants. Image by John Poulsen.Dung is another important contribution from forest elephants. Although poop may seem an unlikely gift, it is a critical ingredient for lush forests. Besides light and water, the most important thing for forest health is nutrients. As elephants chew, swallow, digest and excrete, they unlock and redistribute nutrients like sodium and nitrogen that would otherwise stay put. And when they excavate termite mounds and salt licks, they unearth rare nutrients like potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, which would have been previously inaccessible to the rest of the forest. Elephants in the forest unlock and redistribute the building blocks of life, broadly dispersing ingredients both rare and critical throughout the forest.“I have walked through forests with healthy elephant populations and forests that have been elephant-free for decades. There is a stark difference,” Poulsen says. “Elephant-free forests can have a thick understory and middle story with lots of herbaceous vegetation and thorny vines, visibility is limited and it is difficult to walk through. Forests with elephants can look like a park with good visibility and well-worn trails to walk along.”Dense, elephant-free forest in Gabon, Central Africa, with distinct dense under- and mid-stories. Image by John Poulsen.Park-like forest in Gabon with a relatively large, active forest elephant population. The under- and id-stories are absent, visibility is good, and traversing the forest would be easy. Image by John Poulsen.Making Molehills of MountainsThe great footprint of the forest elephant doesn’t tread on just Central African forests. Tropical forests are an integral component of global carbon storage. The larger the tree, the more carbon it sequesters over its lifetime.“While there is a big focus on stopping deforestation, we speculate that the loss of elephants might also affect the ability of forests to store carbon,” Poulsen says.Because forest elephants are key to the growth and survival of large trees, the loss of elephants means less carbon sequestration by Africa’s forests — and a warmer planet, according to the paper.To conserve both African elephant species — and every plant, animal and fungus that relies on the ecosystem services they provide — the demand for ivory must end. Poulsen is adamant that the two species must be listed as distinct in order to have the proper restrictions in place for the ivory trade.Poulsen says the U.S. public can help by expressing concern for elephant conservation to their congresspersons. Although Central Africa may seem distant, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), as well as other federal agencies, delegate a portion of funding to international conservation in the African tropics. Poulsen also encourages speaking out against allowing tusks and elephant body parts to be imported into the United States and elsewhere.This spring, the Trump Administration allowed elephant parts to be imported via the USFWS on a case-by-case basis.“The only way to stop the ivory trade and the killing of elephants,” Poulsen says, “is to shut down all trade of ivory, everywhere.”Banner image: Forest elephant in Gabon. Photo by Rhett A. Butler. CitationsPoulsen J.R., Rosin C, Meier A, Mills E, Nuñez C. L., et al. (2018) Ecological consequences of forest elephant declines for Afrotropical forests. Conservation Biology 32 (3). DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13035Maisels F, Strindberg S, Blake S, Wittemyer G, Hart J, et al. (2013) Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa. PLOS ONE 8(3): e59469. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/evo_41https://news.mongabay.com/2013/03/62-of-all-africas-forest-elephants-killed-in-10-years-warning-graphic-images/ Article published by Maria Salazar Animals, Carbon Dioxide, Conservation, Ecosystems, Elephants, Environment, Extinction, Forests, Habitat, Interns, Research, Wildlife Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored
Woods, 41, was arrested by police near his home in Jupiter, Florida, around 3:00 am (0700 GMT) before his release later Monday after being charged with driving under the influence.A police mugshot of Woods looking bleary-eyed and unshaven rapidly went viral, underscoring the protracted fall from grace which has befallen the superstar athlete once renowned as a clean-living, corporate pitchman.“I understand the severity of what I did and I take full responsibility for my actions,” Woods said in a statement quoted by US media outlets, which stressed that “alcohol was not involved.”“What happened was an unexpected reaction to prescribed medications. I didn’t realize the mix of medications had affected me so strongly,” Woods said.“I would like to apologize with all my heart to my family, friends and the fans. I expect more from myself too.”The TMZ.com entertainment news website had earlier cited law enforcement sources as saying that Woods was stopped after being spotted “driving erratically, all over the road.” The website said the golfer refused to blow into a breathalyzer.The arrest is the latest gloomy episode to hit Woods, who once towered over his sport before being engulfed by turmoil in his private life and a series of debilitating injuries.Woods hasn’t played competitive golf since pulling out of the Dubai Desert Classic in February after one round because of back pain.He had spinal fusion surgery on April 20 — his fourth surgery in three years to treat his troublesome back which has limited him to three tournament starts worldwide in the past two years.– Personal life torment –Woods wrote on his website last week that since his latest procedure he was feeling better than he had in years and remained committed to returning to competitive golf.“My surgeon and physiotherapist say the operation was successful. It’s just a matter of not screwing up and letting it fuse,” Woods wrote.“I’m walking and doing my exercises, and taking my kids to and from school. All I can do is take it day by day. There’s no hurry. But, I want to say unequivocally, I want to play professional golf again.”Woods made his comeback in December after missing all of the 2015-16 season.But his return quickly ran aground as he withdrew from the PGA Tour event in Los Angeles in February, the Honda Classic and the Arnold Palmer Invitational in March.He even cancelled a planned press conference at the Los Angeles tournament saying doctors had advised him to “limit all activities”.He pulled out of the Masters in early April, missing the first major of the year on the 20th anniversary of his epic 1997 victory at Augusta National that marked his first major title and signalled a new era in the game.Woods, once widely expected to surpass Jack Nicklaus’s record of 18 major championships, hasn’t won a grand slam title since the 2008 US Open at Torrey Pines.Injuries haven’t been the only disruptions to his on-course career.In November of 2009 a car accident outside his Florida home led to revelations of a series of infidelities that wrecked his marriage. He later went to rehabilitation after the accident, reportedly for sex addiction.Amid the lurid tabloid headlines, Woods took a break from professional golf that lasted until the 2010 Masters.Woods chances of overhauling Nicklaus’s tally of 18 majors look remote. He has not featured in a major since the 2015 PGA Championship, when he missed the cut. He also missed the cut in that year’s British and US Opens.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Tiger Woods says he had a bad reaction to prescription medication and that alcohol was not involved when he was arrested for driving under the influence © Palm Beach County Sheriff’s Office/AFP / HandoutMIAMI, United States, May 30 – Golf superstar Tiger Woods was charged with driving under the influence by police in Florida on Monday, dealing a fresh blow to the former world number one as he struggles to resurrect his career.The 14-time major champion blamed his arrest on a reaction to a mixture of prescription medication he has been taking, insisting in an apology to fans that alcohol was not involved in the incident.